The Immersion Blender Effect

I recently received two immersion blenders for my birthday.  Two.  This was not a coincidence, but a direct result of an ongoing learning process.  About ten years ago I lived in Scotland where vegetable soups are pureed.  I thought, what a novel idea – very different from our chunky American version.  I bought cookbooks, blended in my blender and often had a mess of soup exploding everywhere.   I kept talking about immersion blenders, apparently to everyone who buys me birthday presents, and voila – made delicious pureed soup in a mess free, almost instantaneous process.

What in the world does this have to do with teaching and learning reading?

Everything.  It was an authentic learning experience led by direct models, trial and error, intrinsic motivation, conversation and failure before success.

It is basic. Today’s education world is inundated with digital tools, personalized learning, tactics to engage all learners, the list goes on and on.  I agree, these evolving  ideas move education forward and aligning learning with real world and future demands.  They should not go away.  However, in the education fog of trying to figure out which method works best for each unique group of students, I am reminded that the basic elements of learning are fundamental to increasing student achievement.

This process relates both to soup and our recent reading unit – Reading About the World with Nonfiction

Authentic experiences provide models for what the learner will achieve.  Scotland showed (not taught) me a new way to consume vegetable soup.  For our first lesson on reading nonfiction, my class visited the library.  We explored nonfiction topics we might want to read and built excitement around a new genre by naming and exploring it.  This connection to the library helped my readers connect our learning in the classroom with expository texts in the real world.

Readers need time to practice, experiment, experience failure and continue to work toward a clear goal. It took me many years to practice making soup, but then again, I was my only teacher.  With my readers, providing daily reading instruction with short mini lessons about how real readers read nonfiction is critical.  Coupled with ample time to read nonfiction every day students practice reading this genre regularly.  They have time to practice alone, with a reading partner and with experienced readers such as their teachers and parents. Also, strategy-based small groups support readers with skills they need, focusing on compression, fluency and accuracy.

Intrinsic motivation promotes trying something slightly different than before, even in the face of failure.   My motivation was simple – to recreate something I experienced  a world away.  Nonfiction reading can be challenging to some students, but every reader can connect to learning about something interesting. While I encouraged my readers to explore new topics, I also led them to become experts on a particular topic, exploring how they can add new ideas to already existing schema.  Searching for new and exciting key words within nonfiction motivated further.

Talking with peers propels the process.  I talked with anyone who ate my soup -how good the soup tasted, what I could do better, the funny stories of it exploding everywhere.  My readers partnered with peers on a daily basis to talk about reading strategies and new content knowledge.  Interacting with a variety of people helps readers construct and solidify their understanding of expository texts. We had a party to mingle and share ideas and created VoiceThreads to record strategies with others.

Success prompts more a recursive desire to learn and try new things.  Now that I have an immersion blender, I want to make soup all the time.  My readers became empowered with concrete reading strategies to decode and comprehend more complex nonfiction texts.  More importantly, when given the option, they still keep nonfiction texts in their reading baskets, with the drive to articulate information about an interesting topic and share their love of learning.

If I had a soup teacher, this process would have taken far less than ten years.  Teachers matter to these readers more than any tool, theory or educational product out there.  Yes, we use digital tools and differentiation to read and communicate our learning. But real understanding of new genres comes from the immersion of learning to read while simultaneously reading to learn.

Diving Into Nonfiction

It is inevitable.  Every time a reader turns a new corner previously learned skills and strategies that were turning into habits fall apart.

This week we dove head first into nonfiction reading with a Reader’s Workshop field trip to the library. There was a buzz of excitement as students explored books, attempting to evaluate if they were a just right fit.  Engagement was high with kids suggesting we use the nonfiction section to research our social studies unit and realizing we could read nonfiction books to write more in Writer’s Workshop.  They were instantly sold on reading this often daunting and challenging genre.

Now, they are also swarming in books that are too tricky.  Beginning and transitional readers often display an optimistic outlook on their abilities, ready to conquer the world through reading.  As we solidified the ability to select just right books in more predictable genres, I opened a new can of, well, books. And now I need a plan to help my readers reevaluate just right books.  Luckily, they have strategies to lean on from previous instruction, but I hope to expand their ability to navigate this new genre.

Do I have the schema? Most non-fiction is heavily dominant on content vocabulary.  The more a student knows about a topic the more likely she will be able to read unknown words in context by asking “What makes sense?” Strategies to activate this background knowledge such as taking a sneak peek before reading and studying the pictures on each page during reading will alert the reader to content she already knows.

Anchor Book In the first week of our unit, my conferences focus on helping each reader identify a just right nonfiction text.  This book will become a reader’s best friend – staying near by for the next few weeks.  When selecting new nonfiction books, he can refer to the anchor book.  Do the text size and pictures look similar?  Is there significantly more or less text on the pages?  Is the topic related?  While this strategy is not exact, visual similarities in nonfiction texts can often lead to similar readability levels, providing a tool to quickly gauge if a book is too tricky.

Recommendations and Ratings Since our reading partnerships are ability based getting recommendations from a reading partner can spread just right books. It might even spark conversations about how schema effects readability and allow students to deepen their understanding of finding just right books.  This strategy also encourages thinking and writing about nonfiction after reading – an added bonus.

I am teaching in unfamiliar territory with a new unit in nonfiction without leveled texts.  Please, share in the comments ways you support readers in nonfiction texts. I want to try your new ideas.  For now, I’ll be riding on the waves of engagement, reading and learning with my students.

Assessing the Invisible

Reading is a personal, internal process that so often happens at the edge our of thinking. Even as advanced readers, adults don’t usually stop and think – I just made a prediction or I am visualizing this scene.  We just do.  As young readers learn reading strategies and skills they approximate, attempt and try to integrate new strategies into their reading. It is almost impossible to capture that in authentic ways to assess their true learning. Instead, we often rely on external measures to evaluate this internal process.  Running records, fluency rating scales, comprehension question can measure the outcomes of reading, but how do we get a clear understanding of each reader’s thought process?

  1. Conference and Observation NotesI am often more interested in what a reader is doing, instead of not doing.  Every conference I start with “What are you working on as a reader?”  The closer a reader can get to articulating a reading strategy and showing me how they applied that, the clearer I can see the thinking.  In the beginning of the year I teach my readers how to start a conference and how to access our reading strategies.  If they have the language to share their thinking out loud, they are beginning to internalize reading habits.img_2928
  2. Video Snapshot – Toward the end of our unit I asked each student to record a strategy they feel is becoming a habit from our anchor charts in the classroom or their individual strategy cards.

    As I conferred with each reader, I video recorded their thinking.  I asked prompting questions to get more information, but did not teach toward the strategy.  This performance task evaluated if a student could identify and apply a strategy, articulate the thinking, and use it to successfully read the text.  Check out a short example here

  3. Written Reflection – At the end of our reading unit, I asked each reader to take the strategies they felt were becoming good reading habits and write about them.  I wanted to see how much of the strategy they could internalize outside the context of applying it to a text.  Some readers could say why the strategies were helpful, others just regurgitated what was already written down.  Their varying levels of sophistication demonstrated how much learning they internalized.

    Combining these techniques with more traditional running records and comprehension questions provides a clearer snapshot into each reader’s thinking.  Is is difficult at best to know what any elementary aged student is thinking, but encouraging children to articulate their thoughts orally and in writing helps to both document their learning and develop more reflective practices when learning to read.

The Beginnings of my Reading Life by Caroline Petrow

Nerdy Book Club

I am an ambivalent reader.  I always have been. That is, until a few months ago. As a child I learned to read with little difficulty and fondly remember childhood books. Examples of avid readers fill my life including my librarian grandmother carrying a book everywhere, my mother pouring over novels during summer nights on our back porch, and a former literacy coach starting a book club just to get teachers reading. But I failed to ever reflect on and expand my reading life. Even as an adult, I admire friends who easily engage in multiple books at a time and gush with tales from their journeys.  I start many books and finish some.

The truth is, for the past decade I’ve taught children how to read.  At least 200 elementary students have learned from a teacher who could take or leave books.  Yes, I’ve worked to help them become…

View original post 690 more words

The Space Between

Something magical occurs in the moments a teacher and a reader interact.  It is often difficult to detect and even harder to quantify, but the space between the teaching and the learning is where the reader grows.  This interaction is less about what I can teach a student and more about recognizing, naming and extending what they are already doing.  Let me give you an example.

I have a reader with some bad decoding habits – she mumbles over words and makes nonsense guesses at others.  She started off with minimal strategies to read tricky words.  After my mini lessons on “Drop those bad reading habits” and specific strategies to figure out tricky words, I did the teaching – but she had yet to do the learning.  In the following days, as we conferenced one-on-one, I helped her recognize the strategies I taught and supported her to apply the skills.  Yes, this term scaffolding is often thrown around in education, but what are the specific steps to scaffolding learning where the student is in control?  Where the student constructs the learning?

First, the student does all the work.  As a teacher, I am watching her reading behaviors to identify what she is already trying and looking to link it to something she needs to learn.  In this case, my reader was not mumbling over a word (progress), but instead tried two attempts to read “right” as “reet” and “rit” then she kept going.  I stopped her and said “Whoa! Does that make sense?”  She had to do the thinking.

Secondly, name the strategy or skill the student is already trying.  She was trying multiple different vowel sounds to figure out a word, so I told her what she is doing and encouraged her to keep trying until she found a word that made sense.  Having a list of strategies or skills you want your students to accomplish can help you name the reading behaviors.  Think about all the lessons you will teach in a unit and all the lessons you previously taught .  Think about the specific skills you want your readers to master by the end of the year.  These are all possible things to recognize in their reading.

Finally, extend what the reader is doing by staying in the conference until she successfully complete the task. In this case, I stayed with the reader through the end of the page.  I restated the learning she just accomplished and encouraged her to keep doing that when she is stuck again.

This type of scaffolding for readers develops the growth mindset.  They are able to recognize what they are doing, work to keep doing it with support and overtime internalize their reading strategies into habits.  By articulating what happens in that illusive space between teaching and learning helps me understand why individual conferences with students are crucial to growing independent readers.

Set Reading Goals, Not Reading Levels

Recently, I commented about removing the levels from my classroom library on a post from Irene C. Fountas and Guy Su Pinnell’s Facebook group.  Their post was about using reading levels as a tool for teachers, not a tool for students. One teacher responded that giving children reading levels at least ensures they have books they can read.  And I couldn’t agree more.  That is exactly why many teachers use this practice in their classrooms.  I did for years, knowing that if I assigned children levels from my diagnostic reading assessments I could assure they had books they could read.  This works for many students.  But for some kids, it doesn’t.  Here are some potential situations readers find themselves in when assigned levels.  These kids are the reason levels should not be a tool for students.

Setting unrealistic goals – “I want to read the highest level in the class because I want to be the best in the class.”  But right now, that reader is reading below grade level and reaching that goals is not only unattainable, but it is also a hinderance to the work he needs to do.

Having an screwed reading identity – This happens in two ways.  “I want to read level x books”instead of “I want to read more nonfiction or mystery books.”  OR (and I’ve had this exact conversation) “What is wrong with my reading, why can’t I read level x?” When in fact the reader is above grade level, but not reading the highest level in the classroom.

Reading less challenging books – Readability is only one measure of text complexity and does not take into account the reader’s motivation, interest or background knowledge.  Struggling readers will surprise you when they choose books just beyond their assessed levels and are motivated to read them.

So, how can reading teachers find a balance? Removing the scaffold of telling readers the levels they can read does not mean you leave them to read any book freely.  It means you must replace that scaffold with other supports.  Working with individual readers to set realistic and specific reading goals is one way to help them.  Teaching strategies to work toward those goals means they must pick books they can read to practice the strategies.  Here’s how I rolled it out with my first graders.

  1. Explicitly teach the options for reading goals.  I use the Reading CAFE goal setting framework including Comprehension, Accuracy, Fluency or Expanding Vocabulary.  Your students’ goals would match whatever reading benchmarks or goals you have in your curriculum.  Heinemann shared a great goal setting sheet created by Jennifer Serrevallo.  After sharing the goals, I ask students to think about what is tricky and decide what they would like to work on.
  2. Individually conference with each student to co-set a goal.  This take some preplanning.  After conducting reading assessments with my students I have a predetermined goal they each need to work on.  Usually in our conference, my goal matches theirs.   But when it doesn’t, I have two options.
    • Ask why they want that goal.  Recently, a six year told me she wanted to work on fluency while I thought she needed support in accuracy.  Her rational was that another student told her she read smoothly, but with little expression.  We went with her goal – she is motivated, has a clear focus, and fluency will also support her work in accuracy.
    • Listen to the child read, notice something he is already doing with your goal in mind and lead him toward it.  For example, a student who needs support in comprehension but is already making connections I name what he is doing and guide him toward the goal of comprehension.  This identification of one thing he is already doing it attainable and authentic.
  3. Use visual tools to teach strategies to habits.  img_2828I learned this in a workshop from Teachers College Reading and Writing Project.  By recording the goal and teaching specific strategies to work toward that goal students are empowered in their own learning.  Over time these strategies will become habits and we will co-create a new reading goal together.  This is an example of strategies to support a student’s goal of reading accurately.

Taking away reading levels does not equate to letting kids read whatever they want.  Setting reading goals and purpose behind reading ensures students select books they can read.  They know where they are headed and naturally begin to select books that are challenging, engaging and readable.

 

Solving Math Problems with Stories

When introducing word problems during our addition unit I began thinking about my math students as readers. Word problems reside in stories.  I am asking my students to visualize  the actions in the problem and schema to solve a new situation with a strategy they already know. There must be picture books to contextualize and connect with type of content reading. So I went searching.

screen-shot-2016-09-26-at-1-14-12-pmFirst we read Mice Mischief by, Caroline Stills.  This simple book about 10 mice illustrates different combinations of 10 with the corresponding equation.  We talked about how the pictures and words match the math.

screen-shot-2016-09-26-at-1-14-57-pmThen I read Two of Everything by, Lily Toy Hong.  This Chinese Folktale tells about a pot that doubles everything placed inside.  We learned some books have math inside the story that you have to discover.  We found the math on certain pages and wrote equations to match.

Then the children explored.  As they read from the selection of texts, they work with a partner to identify addition problems in each book.  They talked about the story, built context for the conceptual understanding of joining two parts (usually characters or items in the story) together to make a whole.  They wrote equations and shared their thinking with the class.  As we combined reading skills and math concepts they marveled at the fact that math exists in books.

This text set has a wide range of reading levels and math difficulty for beginning first graders.  I grouped the students based on both their reading and math needs to differentiate the content.screen-shot-2016-09-26-at-1-13-48-pm

After exploring how different authors used math within sorties we set out to create one of our own. Using Mice Mischief  and The Flashing Fireflies by, Philemon Sturges as mentor texts, we explored how the authors use a total amount of 10 to create a stories.  We decide our story took place in the forest with 10 total objects on each page.

img_2718

Each student wrote an individual page for our class book.  We learned about addition concepts.  We learned about visualizing as readers.  We learned about writing to communicate one part of a collective text.  We blurred the lines between content areas and experienced how reading, writing and math are constructed in the real world as we became mathematical authors.

Book choice, differentiation and the beginnings of goal setting

After I removed the reading levels from my classroom library I taught readers how to make independent book choices based on a variety of strategies. Last week, with daily lessons in selecting texts and focused time to pick books, they could do it. This next week our instruction shifted to increasing stamina and the volume of reading. When the children went to self select books it all fell apart. Without the whole-class scaffolding and attention on the strategies, many struggled to select texts independently.

I did what any teacher does when a lesson flops.  I reflected on the failure. My readers weren’t all making the same mistake. Some picked books they could read but not comprehend. Some picked a huge range of text difficulty. Some were copping out with easy books. Others were independently selecting appropriate books and ready for next steps in instruction. Giving students choice requires me to differentiate more. I have to know what each individual learner needs, group them with similar peers, and scaffold learning based on their needs. And beginning readers have a wide range of needs. I looked through their book baskets and evaluated their choices. I grouped and identified reading goals based on my assessments of their reading levels and abilities and the types of books they were picking.

Before setting goals, readers need to know what they are struggling with and when it feels just right. Giving them sample texts that closely match independent levels, allowing them to read independently and then talking about how that book ‘felt’ as a reader is one way to help them construct the abstract idea of a “just right book”. Asking them to focus on their potential goal – such as read to see if you can clearly understand – is another way to help them recognize what is challenging and what feels right.

For example, one reader commented after reading that the book was too easy, while I knew it was an exact match to her independent level. As we talked, she learned that a just right book shouldn’t feel confusing – it’s a goal to have crystal clear thinking when reading. Another student thought the words were too hard, but in reality he uses limited decoding strategies with unknown words. These readers were assessed at the same reading level, read the same book and had vastly different learning experiences when getting the feel of a just right book and information for what is challenging for them as readers.

Now, as we explicitly set reading goals for learning they will have a sense of the books they need and background knowledge to understand on their individual goals.

Goodbye Leveled Library Part #2

Before school began I said goodbye to my leveled classroom library. I rearranged books to support independent readers – NOT Lexiles and labels.  After a few weeks of getting to know my readers and my readers getting to know books they love, we started the long journey of choosing the right book at the right time for the right purpose.

All readers need books that meet their needs.drminilesson With two volunteers we role play visiting the doctor.  The first student has a broken arm and I (the doctor) put a cast on his arm.  The second student enters with a broken leg, and I put a cast on her arm as well.  All the children erupt “NO, that won’t help! She has a broken leg! Put a cast on her leg!” Engaging, yes.  But my point illustrates that just as doctors treat patients based on their individual needs, the books we choose are based on our individual reading needs. All readers’ book choices must reflect their goals.

Good readers purposefully choose books they can read.  ipickI originally stole this from the background of a Twitter photo and later saw it blasted all over Pinterest. While I don’t generally rip off pre-created anchor charts, this one comprehensively illustrates the mindset of real reading.  As we set the purpose for reading instruction the children immediately recognize it is to become better readers.  Every book they choose is with the intention of growing as readers. As we spent the previous three weeks building interest, they are already familiar with their own reading tastes.  The last two, comprehension and accuracy, go together.  Real reading is reading the words and understanding the text. Read on to see how I spend the next few days teaching specific strategies for accuracy and comprehension.

All readers practice reading fivefingerwith books they can read MOST of the words.  While I hesitate to give children a definitive limit on selecting a text, the Five Finger Rule can help young readers quantify books that really are too hard.  If a reader encounters five (or more) tricky words in the first few pages, a book might be too hard. I was serendipitously away from my class for professional development this day and our reading specialist modeled the strategy for the kids.  Upon my return, I had the children teach it to me and we co-created this anchor chart. Yes, they taught me to “Start with a book you think is just right” and try out the words.  First graders get this – the Five Finger Rule can be one strategy to gauge readability, but NOT the only strategy.

Real reading is reading the words and understanding the text.  In every lesson, I reiterate the main reason for reading is to understand.  Comprehension Connections by, Tanny McGregor suggests using paint samples to monitor comprehension. After reading part of a new text, stop and evaluate.  If your thinking or understanding is fuzzy its like the lighter color on a swatch.  The clearer your understanding of the text the brighter the color. While my students in September don’t have the comprehension strategies or language to fully articulate their thinking, they now have a conceptual tool (and unique bookmark) to monitor understanding.

Readers make plans for books they want to read in the future. As students began to sift through their personal book boxes, select books from our classroom library and make critical decisions balancing interest, purpose and readability they had to let some books go.  They used deep thinking to select books with the purpose of becoming better readers.  I remind them these books are here for the whole year and confer with statements such as “Is this a book you might save for later in the year?” or “Remember that one in a few months, it will be waiting for you.”  More advanced readers could even make a running list of future texts or log them on an Instagram or Goodreads account.

Here are some priceless thoughts from my 6 year old readers.

  • “I really like David Shannon books and I really want to read about math.  I think I’ll save the math book for later because I can’t read all the words yet.”
  • “I am picking these science books because the words (text) are bigger and usually I can read those words better.”
  • “These five books I think I can read.  This other one has lots of tricky words, but I really like it.  I think I’ll keep it for a challenge.”

With that being said, letting go of control in the classroom is hard. Some kids just aren’t developmentally there yet. But keeping the big goal in mind – growing independent readers – means we are headed down the right path.

Up next, helping readers set realistic goals to increase purpose and ways to monitor and informally assess independent reading choices.

 

 

 

#ILD16 Family Reading Matters

International Literacy Day and the publication of my students’ first e-book coincided today.  This year the International Literacy Association reflects upon the Steps to Literacy and the amount students must travel just to make it to school – let alone learn to read.  I am fortunate to work with students who mostly did not step far to find their favorite books and arrive at school.

This week we gathered together each morning as a reading community to share our favorite picture books and memories from home. Using BookMaker app, we created our first book together about books we love.
screen-shot-2016-09-08-at-5-30-52-pmTo prepare, I sent a letter home inviting families to talk about their favorite books and reading memories.  Children shared reasons for loving books from snuggling with mom to enjoying a funny story.  We learned about our classmates’ interests and reflected on our own.  Every single child in my class has strong home connections to books because of their families.

What does this have to do with international literacy?  Everything.  These readers, whose parents have spent countless hours reading with their children, have deep connections to literacy.  Their ability to seamlessly document this in a collective text demonstrates families matter.  Leisurely reading with and to children connects them in ways to books we cannot fully comprehend or replicate in school.

Now, my hope is not to just teach my first graders to read, but to teach them to love reading with purpose.  And to go into the world and spread that love of reading.  For one day, everyone, everywhere can love to read as much as these six year olds do.